Glossary/Abbreviations

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NightFox
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Glossary/Abbreviations

Post by NightFox » Sat Apr 20, 2019 11:01 am

As a newcomer to these forums and someone who's only just started researching EVs, it would be very useful to have a glossary and list of abbreviations stickied somewhere.

I know things like SOC and SOTA are part of the language on here, but for a newbie it takes a bit of time to work out what these things actually mean!


HardBoil
Posts: 85
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Re: Glossary/Abbreviations

Post by HardBoil » Sun Apr 21, 2019 8:17 am

How's this for a starter for 10?

came from 3 sources and was combined (but there may be overlap)

===================

Electric Vehicle Glossary of Terms
• EV (Electric Vehicle): A broad category that includes all vehicles that are fully powered by Electricity or an Electric Motor.
• BEV (Battery Electric vehicle): Also known as an “All-electric” vehicle BEV’s utilize energy that is stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEV’s sustain their power through the batteries and therefore must be plugged into an external electricity source in order to recharge.
• EVD: Electric Vehicle Driver
• Regenerative braking: A method of breaking used by EV in which energy from the braking of the vehicle is stored and used.
• ICE (Internal Combustion Engine): An ICE is powered by combustible fuel, often petroleum or natural gas products.
• ICEV (Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle): All vehicles that are powered by Fossil Fuels are ICEVs.
• HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles): An HEV utilizes a dual system of electric propulsion and an internal combustion engine.
• PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles): PHEVs contain a battery that is able to be charged with an external electric power source, PHEV’s are a mixture of all electric vehicles and ICEV’s.
• NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle): BEV’s that are limited to streets with lower speed limits, typically around 45mph. NEV’s are all-electric and can be recharged using a standard outlet.
• EREV (Extended-range electric vehicles): Vehicles that have the ability to run on a gasoline engine if the battery gets low
• EVB (Electric Vehicle Battery): A battery that is used to power the movement of a BEV.
• AC (Alternating Current): A charge of electricity that regularly changes direction, which is the kind of power that comes from the power plant to homes and businesses.
• DC (Direct Current): A charge of electricity that flows in one direction and is the type of power that comes from a battery.
• AER (All-Electric Range): The range any EV is able to reach solely using electricity.
• Range Anxiety: Worry or stress that is caused due to the fear that an electric car will run out of battery power before the destination is reached.
• kW (Kilowatt): A unit of electric power.
• EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment): Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs. EVSE can charge a wide variety of EVs including BEVs and PHEVs.
• Level 1 Charging: Charging your EV using a common household outlet up to 120v. Level 1 is the slowest method of charging and can take up to 24 hours or more to full charge your EV.
• Level 2 Charging: Charges your EV at 240v using an installed outlet. Level 2 chargers are the most recommended chargers to EV owners. Depending on your EV model and charger, Level 2 can give you vehicle 5x as quickly as Level 1 which translates to up to 26 miles per hour of charging.
• Level 3 Charging: Also known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour. Level three chargers are currently rare as they’re very expensive and require more power.
• JEVS G105-1993: Also known as CHAdeMO, it is a method developed to quickly charge Electric Vehicles through the use of a special adapter that delivers up to 62.5 kW. This is used in Japan.
• SAE J1772: The standard North American electrical connection for Electric Vehicles. Generally works with Level 1 and Level 2 systems.
• IEC 62196: Also known as the Mennekes, it is a type of connectors that is used to charge Electric Vehicles in Europe.
• Combined Charging System: Another method to quickly charge electric vehicles through a special electric connection. CCSs often use the SAE J1772, which is the North American electrical standard for Electric Vehicles.
• Tesla Supercharger: A super-fast charging system that can provide up to 120 kW directly to the car’s battery. Currently these systems are only available to Teslas.
• Charge Circuit Interrupting Device (CCID): A safety protection component within an EVSE that reduces the chance of a person getting an electric shock.
• V2G (Vehicle-to-grid): A system that allows Electric Vehicles to communicate with the power grid to manage the flow of electricity in either direction.
• GHG (Green House Gas): A gas such as Carbon Dioxide that contributes to global warming through the absorption of infrared radiation.
• Off Peak Charging: Charging your electrical vehicle at certain lowest cost off-peak hours.
• Battery Management System: An electronic system within the Vehicle that manages and protects the battery.
• LIB (Lithium-ion battery): Also known as a Li-ion, it is a common rechargeable battery.
• VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery): A rechargeable lead-acid battery.
• NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride): A less reliable rechargeable battery.
• Molten salt battery: A type of battery that utilizes molten salts as an electrolyte.
• Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) A car that runs purely on electric power, stored in an on-board battery that is charged from mains electricity (typically at a dedicated chargepoint).
• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) A car with a combination of a traditional internal combustion engine and a rechargeable battery, allowing for either pure electric-powered driving or extended range from a combination of the petrol engine and electric motor.
• Plug-in vehicle (PiV) A blanket term for any vehicle with a plug socket, including BEVs and PHEVs.
• Electric vehicle (EV) Can be used as a catch-all term for BEVs, PHEVs and REx, but often used to refer to pure electric vehicles i.e. BEVs.
• Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) A car that has official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km, and is therefore eligible for grants and benefits from the UK government.
• Range-extended EV (REx) An EV that has only an electric drivetrain, but a small petrol generator to charge the battery when range is depleted for longer trips. Often considered a type of PHEV.
• Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) A 100% fossil fueled hybrid car. The most common is the Toyota Prius. A small battery is charged through regenerative braking that generates some electric power in tandem to a combustion engine, but all energy originates from petrol.
• Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) This term refers to an EV which uses a hydrogen fuel cell to power its electric motor. The fuel cells create the electricity to power the car.
• Alternative Fuel Vehicle This term is used for a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petrol or diesel. It includes engines that don't solely rely on petroleum such as PHEV, EV, FCEVS, but also includes HEVs.
• Type 1A five pin plug that also features a clip, this connector is common in the US and is typically found on EVs manufactured by Asian and US brands (e.g. Nissan, Mitsubishi and GM/Vauxhall/Opel). However its prominence is fading as Nissan have moved to Type 2.
• Type 2A seven pin plug with one flat edge, this connector was originally favoured by European brands e.g. BMW, VW group, but is now becoming the most popular on all cars. Can carry three-phase power and locks into the socket of a charging point.
• CHAdeMO A round four pin plug, this connector is only used for rapid charging points and is typically compatible with EVs manufactured by Asian brands e.g. Mitsubishi and Nissan. Can offer Vehicle to Grid (V2G) but has less power than CCS and requires two separate sockets.
• Combined Charging System (CCS) Standardised by the EU, this connector combines two DC pins arranged below the Type 2 AC connector and uses 3 of the Type 2s pins. Found on most Type 2 BEVs.
• UK 3 pin The plug for a standard UK electrical outlet. This connector can be used to charge some EVs in an emergency but lacks the safety, speed and security features of a dedicated chargepoint.
• Top Up Charging The practice of plugging in your electric vehicle whenever you park while out and about, making use of the time your car is not in use to add charge to your battery. This helps avoid range anxiety and means you will rarely find yourself waiting for your car to charge.
• Public Pod Points are ideal for top up charging and can be found using our free app.
• Home Charging Plugging your electric car in to charge while it is parked at home, typically overnight. A dedicated home charging point is the best and safest way of doing this.
• En-route Charging En route charging typically requires high powered rapid chargers, that put >100 miles into your electric car in the time it takes to grab a coffee, a snack and use the facilities. This enables you to take long-distance trips in your electric car, but is not needed day-to-day.
• ICEd When a chargepoint is occupied by a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE) , preventing an EV from charging. A polite note left on their windscreen with your phone number is generally the best response.
• RFID Cards Using the same technology used in public transport travel cards, these cards are used by many older chargepoints to allow access to EV charging.
• The Pod Point Network On the Pod Point Network you can charge your EV without RFID cards or membership. Simply use the Pod Point app to find a chargepoint and start your charge. Alternatively, some Pod Point rapid chargers can be used with just the tap of your contactless bank card.
• Contactless Payment Available on some rapid chargers, it is possible to start and pay for your charging session with the tap of your contactless credit/debit card.
• Range Anxiety The term given to a fear of running out of charge while driving a plug-in electric vehicle. This fear can be avoided by top-up charging wherever you park throughout the day and en-route charging on longer journeys.
• Range per hour (RPH) Miles of range per hour of charge.
• Kilowatt hour (kWh) A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred in one hour by one thousand watts of power. Electric car batteries are typically measured in kilowatt hours. 1 kilowatt hour is typically 3-4 miles of range in a BEV.
• Smart charging A catch-all term for a series of functions that a Wi-Fi connected chargepoint can perform. Typically this refers to things like load balancing, energy monitoring and “managed charging”, i.e. shifting charging periods away from periods of high grid demand and/or low grid supply and to periods of low grid demand and/or high grid supply.
• Vehicle to Grid (V2G) The concept of using your electric car battery to release power back through the charger either for use in the local building or back into the grid at large during time of high grid demand.
• Single-phase Power Typically found in most UK homes and some businesses, this is what all standard 3 pin plug sockets provide. A single-phase electricity supply can power a dedicated chargepoint up to 7kW.
• Three-phase Power Often found on commercial and industrial sites, this provides three alternating currents and allows for 22kW AC charging. Significant three-phase power availability is also a prerequisite for DC rapid charger installation.
• The Rapid Charge Paradox The counter-intuitive realisation that it is only at the fastest chargers where EV drivers typically spend time waiting to charge. This is because most charging is done at slower chargepoints that charge the car while the driver is otherwise occupied.
• Trickle Charging The slowest type of charging, this is best reserved for long overnight charges at home and is either provided safely by de-rated dedicated chargepoints, or through a standard 3 pin plug, which lacks certain safety features.
• Slow Charging A better option for home charging, this allows for both top up and overnight charging through a dedicated chargepoint. The 3.7kW Pod Point Solo is a good example of this type of charging point and provides faster charging times than a 3 pin socket.
• Fast Charging Ideal for top up charging, most fast chargepoints offer 7kW, ideal for keeping you going while out and about. Typically found in homes, workplaces and in public car parks where people typically spend circa 40 mins or more.
• Rapid Charging Typically used for en-route charging on long distance journeys, rapid chargers can also be used as occasional “caught short” chargers, particularly if available somewhere convenient, e.g. a supermarket. Rapid charging takes place from 43kW power and above.
• Manufacturer’s Claimed Range and Efficiency This has traditionally been the most optimistic measure, achievable in specific circumstances. Often the manufacturers would use numbers derived from the “NEDC” cycle.
• NEDC A cautionary tale in use of the word “new”, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), last updated in 1997, was designed to assess the emission levels of car engines and fuel economy in passenger cars. It has fallen out of favour as manufacturers were configuring their cars’ performance for the NEDC test, rather than the NEDC measuring their cars’ real world performance. When it comes to electric vehicles, the NEDC gives quite a generous assessment of range.
• WLTP The Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) is the more thorough emissions and efficiency testing regime that has broadly superseded the NEDC. The test provides a less optimistic verdict on real world electric range, but it is arguably still more optimistic than a vehicle’s actual real world range.
• EPA The USA’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established its own testing methodology for electric range which is arguably the toughest, and thus closest to real world performance of the available metrics.
• AC Alternating Current
• AFV Alternate Fuel Vehicle — A vehicle powered by fuel other than gasoline or diesel. Examples of alternative fuels are electricity, hydrogen, and CNG. Additional EAA information on AFVs is below.
• Ah Amp Hour — a measure of current (measured in amperes drawn over time (measured in hours), typically used to describe battery capacity and battery charging or discharging.
• AT PZEV Advanced Technology PZEVs — AT PZEVs meet the PZEV requirements and have additional "ZEV-like" characteristics. A dedicated compressed natural gas vehicle, or a hybrid vehicle with engine emissions that meet the PZEV standards would be an AT PZEV.
• BEV Battery Electric Vehicle— An EV powered by electricity stored in batteries.
• C1
• C2
• Cn Cnare a series ofn-hour battery charge/discharge test specifications from the SAE. Battery charge/discharge rates affect storage capacity; see Peukert's Law below for a reference.
• CARB California Air Resources Board
• CNG Compressed Natural Gas—Natural gas is primarily methane (CH4). To serve as a vehicle fuel, it must be stored at high pressure (i.e. compressed) to get sufficient amounts in a tank.
• DC Direct Current
• E85 E85 is a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume.
• EV Electric Vehicle — a vehicle where an electric motor powers the wheels. Battery EVs store electric power in batteries. Hybrid EVs supplement battery storage with electricity generated from another fuel (e.g. gasoline or diesel ICE). Fuel cell EVs supply electricity to the motor from a fuel cell. Additional EAA information on EVs is below.
• Fuel Cell Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electricity. The most common type is a PEM, which converts gaseous hydrogen (H2) into electricity and water (H2O).
• FCV Fuel Cell Vehicle Additional EAA information on FCVs is below.
• FFV Flexible Fuel Vehicle— a vehicle that can run on a variety of fuels (most often just gasoline and E85)
• GHG Green House Gas— A gas that in the atmosphere prevents heat from radiating back into space, and thus warms the earth (the greenhouse effect). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most common greenhouse gas. Methane (CH4) is another GHG, and has approximately twenty times the greenhouse effect as CO2 in the atmosphere.
• HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle— A vehicle that combines conventional power production (e.g. an ICE) and an electric motor. Additional EAA information on HEVs is below.
• HOV High Occupancy Vehicle
• HP Horsepower— a measure of power (power is energy per time). For engines this is torque multiplied by rotational speed. In the automotive world, it is used to rate engines, but comparisons based on engine horsepower can be misleading because torque varies significantly with RPM for an ICE and the test conditions of the measurement must be carefully specified (e.g. SAE test procedures). In contrast, for electric motors, horsepower is simply defined as 746 Watts (0.746KW).
• Hz Hertz— cycles per second, a measure of AC frequency. The U.S. AC electric grid is 60Hz.
• ICE Internal Combustion Engine— An engine that burns fuel inside a reaction chamber to create pressure inside the chamber that is converted into rotary motion. ICE engines are typically based on the Otto cycle,Atkinson cycle, or Wankel engine.
• KW KiloWatt— a measure of power (power is energy per time).
• KWh KiloWatt Hour— a measure of energy.
• LEV Low Emission Vehicle — All new cars sold in California starting in 2004 will have at least a LEV or better emissions rating.
• LiIon Lithium Ion— a battery technology consisting of several different chemistries, with different characteristics.
• LSV Low Speed Vehicle — another name for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles rating, not typically permitted on highways..
• NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association— Typically used in the EV community when referring to plug and receptacle types, such as ones at NEMA Plug & Receptacle Configurations.
• NEV Neighborhood Electric Vehicle-not typically permitted on highways.
• NOx Nitrogen oxides formed whenever combustion occurs in the presence of nitrogen
• NiMH Nickel Metal Hydride— a battery technology which pre-dates modern Lithium chemistries.
• PbA Lead Acid— a battery technology dating back to the earliest 20th century. .
• PEM Proton Exchange Membrane— a type of fuel cell.
• Peukert's Law estimates the capacity of an electric battery over a range of discharge rates. See Wikipedia Peukert's law for more information.
• PHEV Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Additional EAA information on PHEVs is below.
• PV Photovoltaic(think rooftop solar)
• PZEV Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle— PZEVs meet SULEV tailpipe emission standards, have zero evaporative emissions and a 15 year / 150,000 mile warranty. No evaporative emissions means that they have fewer emissions while being driven than a typical gasoline car has while just sitting.
• RMS Root Mean Square— typically used to characterize an AC waveform. An AC waveform of N RMS Volts generates the same heat in a resistor as N Volts DC. For a sine wave, such as found in the electric grid, the RMS voltage is 0.707 times the peak voltage (i.e. your 120V AC outlet has a peak voltage of 169V, but is equivalent in heating value to 120V DC).
• RPM Revolutions Per Minute
• SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
• SOx Sulfur oxides
• SPI Small Paddle Inductive — Inductive coupling of power from the charger to the vehicle was put on various production vehicles in two generations: first with a large paddle and then later with a small paddle. Large paddle cars can use small paddle chargers with an adapter, but the converse is not true, so SPI chargers are now much preferable to LPI.
• SULEV Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle— SULEVs are 90% cleaner than the average new model year car.
• ULEV Ultra Low Emission Vehicle — ULEVs are 50% cleaner than the average new model year car.
• VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
• WTP Wells to Pump — the first part of WTW— the part that is often overlooked when comparing different automotive technologies.
• WTW Wells to Wheels — a designation that something (e.g. pollution, energy, etc.) is being measured from extraction of raw materials (e.g. petroleum — hence "Wells") to the wheels of the vehicle. This is the most appropriate way to measure most end-to-end effects in transportation. Additional EAA information on WTW is below.
• ZEV Zero Emissions Vehicle— ZEVs have zero tailpipe emissions are 98% cleaner than the average new model year vehicle. These include battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.


===================

Ref:
Electro Auto Association
EV Safe Charge
Pod Point
I-PACE / X590 / 2019 / EBONY BLACK/NARVIK BLACK

General i-pace rambling http://tinyurl.com/y54rn4d5


ChrisMc
Posts: 679
Joined: Mon Jul 16, 2018 7:51 pm
Location: North West

Re: Glossary/Abbreviations

Post by ChrisMc » Sun Apr 21, 2019 10:11 am

Well you did ask :)
MY20 - I Pace HSE EV400 in Black with full black pack, Mars Red Windsor leather sports seats, gloss black 20” wheels etc etc
InControlTouch Pro: S18D Updated 31.07.2019 to S19A_19.24.2-375121 Telematics: Was 14.2 Now 16.2 ??? - H228


DougTheMac
Posts: 297
Joined: Mon Sep 17, 2018 7:50 pm
Location: Suffolk UK

Re: Glossary/Abbreviations

Post by DougTheMac » Sun Apr 21, 2019 10:43 pm

Golly!

But to add a few more specific to this forum:

SoC or %SoC: State of Charge, ie % of maximum battery capacity.
GoM: Guess-o-Meter, the somewhat cynical description of the I-Pace display of remaining miles of range.
CCS (strictly, CCS2): a specification covering the connector and hand-shaking protocol used to achieve “rapid” (50kW+) DC charging. Often just used as shorthand for rapid charging or a rapid charger.
Type 2: The connector/cable used for AC charging from a Home or Public Chargepoint, which in the case of the I-Pace, is at a maximum of 7kW single phase, whatever the rating of the supply.
Grannie Cable: the cable and adapter allowing charging at 2-2.5kW from an ordinary domestic mains outlet (13A plug in UK, limited to 10A; 10A Shuko plug in EU, limited to 8A).
HUD: Head-Up Display
ACC: Automatic Cruise Control
LKA: Lane Keeping Assist.
AD: Adaptive Dynamics (see brochure re these 4).
SOTA: Software (update) Over The Air, referring to the facility, only now implemented, of updating some of the car’s software via a WiFi or GSM connection to the internet, without the need for a dealer visit.
HSE Silicon Silver Pano Air+AD Oyster since 1Mar19
S18D_18.47.5-269316 & 14.2


Jaggy_Luss
Posts: 29
Joined: Mon May 27, 2019 11:54 am
Location: Luxemburg

Re: Glossary/Abbreviations

Post by Jaggy_Luss » Thu May 30, 2019 8:19 am

Bravo an Thanks for contribution
Caesium Blue, S, MY2019, S19A_19.24 TCU 14.2 update to ??? after H228,
18 inch rims with 4 season tyres


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